Assessing soil erosion caused by raindrops utilizing the index of erosion through precipitation (R-factor).


ABSTRACT. Soil erosion caused by raindrops is a topic that arouses the interest of researchers at the international level. The negative impact that this meteorological phenomenon has on the edaphic component determines a limited development of the zone or area on which the entire research process takes place. In order to arrive at an analysis consistent with the reality on the ground, many researchers have used an essential indicator, namely, the R-Factor. It highlights the action of the kinetic energy produced by precipitation over a period of time. The purpose of our research is to reveal the degree of soil erosion following raindrops, with the Someșan Plateau situated in North-West Romania as a study area. The spatio-temporal analysis consisted in the processing of the ESDAC (European Soil Data Centre) databases that were outlined following the application of the R-factor indicator, on which we applied GIS techniques, in order to finally obtain cartographic material that reveals on the basis of several analysis indices, the degree of soil erosion in a time interval (1970-2018). The notable results that we obtained after processing the data, outline the fact that during the analyzed period a low amount of precipitation is recorded, an aspect that creates a low degree of erosion. Regarding the probability of producing erosion determined by this meteorological phenomenon, the values obtained are reduced far below the normal values of the analyzed indicators, highlighting that the probability of producing a high-risk erosion in the near future is zero.The results of our research, including the entire cartographic material, will be able to be used by the competent authorities (the town hall of Bălan commune, the county councilas) as a basis for spatial development projects

Key words: soil erosion, degradation, rain drops, R-factor, indicators, Someșan Plateau, Romania