Volume 33, Number 2, Winter 2023

Editorial board  Full text

Contents  Full text


Ethnic diversity in the regional country system. Interferences, nounces and polarities
pp: 9-21 | DOI: 10.24193/RCJ2023_9| Full text

The geographical position of the Târnave river regional system is defined by the bifurcated axial system of the two Târnave rivers. The ethnic groups that populate it have coexisted for centuries, interfering, influencing each other and enriching the cultural and social heritage. The majority ethnic group is Romanian (47.35%, according to the 2011 census), its antiquity and continuity being demonstrated by the numerous historical vestiges that can be found throughout the area. The other ethnicities that were or are in a more significant number, Hungarians (38.31% in 2011), Roma (8.81% in 2011), Germans (0.68% in 2011), Jews etc., reached the studied territory in certain historical moments and contributed to the nuance of the ethnic character of the regional system of Târnave. The general trend of population decline is noticeable, often at a dramatic rate, with the exception of the Roma minority, which is in an upward trend. It is possible to observe how the ethnic groups that populate the regional territory chose their living spaces differently: the Romanians, as an autochthonous population, preferred the hearths of the hill and the plateau (harder to work but easier to defend in the context of so many events that shook history), and the natives settled in open places, from where they could easily control, but also practice efficient trade and agriculture.


Vegetation fires in Romania: an overview.
pp: 25-35 | DOI: 10.24193/RCJ2023_10| Full text

The main purpose of the present paper is to explore the current state of knowledge upon the occurrence and impacts of vegetation fires in Romania and to make a brief report on the sources of data concerning such events, in order to pave the road for further, more detailed studies upon the occurrence of vegetation fires in Romania. Using satellite images-based applications available at EFFIS we could observe that Romania is indeed impacted by many fire events every year. In addition, we worked with a large database provided by the General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations, that includes over 150,000 entries, regarding interventions of fire brigades on vegetation fires in Romania. Among other aspects, these data showed that the main regions for such interventions were the southern and western parts of the country and that the monthly occurrence of such events corresponds to timeframes typical for clearing agricultural lands.


Springtime Air Temperature variations in South-Western Romania (1961-2023).
pp: 39-59 | DOI: 10.24193/RCJ2023_11| Full text

Over time, the warming and cooling periods of the climate on Earth followed each other with great irregularity and caused significant variations in air temperature, but allowed the existence of life and especially of the human species. They are determined by the variability of the cosmic factors that essentially determine the Earth's climate. In the following paper I’ve analyzed the variation of the air temperature in Oltenia during the springs for the interval 1961-2023. A number of other works have analyzed climate variability in this part of Romania. The warm 1945-1955 period was followed by a gradual cooling of the weather, and in the 1961-1998 period (39 years), there was only one spring in which all three months were warmer than normal (1983). Then the frequency of warmer-than-normal months and springs gradually increased starting in 1999, peaking in the 2007-2020 range. Several daily temperature climate records were broken, but seasonal records were not. At the same time, in the analyzed interval, in the polar areas the rate of melting of the ice increased a lot and exceptional thermal maxima were recorded in the cold season. Late spring frosts also occurred in warm springs and did significant damage. The random variability of air temperature determined by the random variability of cosmic factors is the main cause of these thermal variations. The work is useful to all those interested in climate variability in Oltenia.

The impact of severe convective phenomena in Sălaj and Maramureş counties. Case study: Supercell on May 28th 2019.
pp: 60-72 | DOI: 10.24193/RCJ2023_12| Full text

The main purpose of the study is to analyze the conditions and impact of severe weather phenomena in Sălaj and Maramureș counties. A supercell storm that crossed a significant part of the mentioned area in the 28th May 2019’s afternoon, also affecting Zalău and Baia Mare was chosen as a case study through its impact and severe threats that occurred, leaving many damages over the area. The analyzed phenomena are convective, generated by Cumulonimbus clouds with a considerable vertical extent. Synoptic and mesoscale conditions were determined using the specific methods of investigation (charts of sea level pressure, geopotential height, temperature and humidity, atmospheric soundings, different stability indices, vertical wind shear, infrared and visible satellite images and radar images of convective storms). The main findings are: synoptic conditions were determined by low values of atmospheric pressure at the surface and by the atmospheric depressions, while in the middle troposphere, an atmospheric trough was present; mesoscale conditions presented: elevated values of Convective Available Potential Energy, negative values of Lifted Index, and strong wind shear in the 0-3 km layer.

Variability of Air Temperature During Winter Between 1961-2022 in Southwest Romania (Oltenia).
pp: 73-90 | DOI: 10.24193/RCJ2023_13| Full text

The periods of heating and cooling of the weather on Earth followed each other with great irregularity and caused significant variations in air temperature but allowed the existence of life and especially of the human species. In the paper I have analysed the variation of the air temperature in Oltenia during the winters for the interval 1961-2022. A number of our other works have analysed climate variability in this part of Romania. After the warm interval 1945-1955 there followed a gradual cooling of the weather, and in the interval 1986-2022 (for 36 years), there was not a single very cold winter (FR) but only two cold winters (R) and two cool (RC). The interval 2000-2022 (23 years) was the warmest of the entire period of meteorological observations in Oltenia. Many annual, monthly and daily temperature climate records have been broken. At the same time, in the analysed interval, in the polar areas the rate of melting of the ice increased a lot and exceptional thermal maxima were recorded in the cold season. The warm periods during the winters were increasingly longer, more frequent and more intense. The work is useful to all those interested in climate variability in Oltenia.


Assessing soil erosion caused by raindrops utilizing the index of erosion through precipitation (R-factor).
pp: 93-110 | DOI: 10.24193/RCJ2023_8| Full text

Soil erosion caused by raindrops is a topic that arouses the interest of researchers at the international level. The negative impact that this meteorological phenomenon has on the edaphic component determines a limited development of the zone or area on which the entire research process takes place. In order to arrive at an analysis consistent with the reality on the ground, many researchers have used an essential indicator, namely, the R-Factor. It highlights the action of the kinetic energy produced by precipitation over a period of time. The purpose of our research is to reveal the degree of soil erosion following raindrops, with the Someșan Plateau situated in North-West Romania as a study area. The spatio-temporal analysis consisted in the processing of the ESDAC (European Soil Data Centre) databases that were outlined following the application of the R-factor indicator, on which we applied GIS techniques, in order to finally obtain cartographic material that reveals on the basis of several analysis indices, the degree of soil erosion in a time interval (1970-2018). The notable results that we obtained after processing the data, outline the fact that during the analyzed period a low amount of precipitation is recorded, an aspect that creates a low degree of erosion. Regarding the probability of producing erosion determined by this meteorological phenomenon, the values obtained are reduced far below the normal values of the analyzed indicators, highlighting that the probability of producing a high-risk erosion in the near future is zero.The results of our research, including the entire cartographic material, will be able to be used by the competent authorities (the town hall of Bălan commune, the county councilas) as a basis for spatial development projects

Advanced Geomorphological Analysis of Erosion Dynamics at Făgetu Ierii: Integrating UAV Techniques and GIS for Enhanced Precision.
pp: 111-122  | DOI: 10.24193/RCJ2023_14| Full text

This article delves into the realm of high-resolution geomorphological analysis, with a particular focus on soil erosion assessment. To achieve a more precise analysis of surface erosion, our study selected the former quartz sand exploitation site at Făgetu Ierii, in the Iara commune. This location serves as a focal point for studying various geomorphological processes, including landslides and gully formation, characterized by their significant intensity. Traditional methods for monitoring erosion dynamics involve substantial investments in both human effort and technical resources. This entails on-field tasks such as identification and detailed measurements, as well as office-based activities involving mapping and spatial analysis. Recognizing the challenges associated with these conventional approaches, our research explores more efficient methods that harness rapidly evolving modern technology. In this pursuit, the adoption of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) techniques and methodologies appears as particularly promising. UAVs facilitate the creation of comprehensive databases capturing the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the terrain within the study area. The advantages are multifaceted: UAVs significantly reduce the time and costs associated with fieldwork while simultaneously enhancing the precision and accuracy of digital databases. These databases play a pivotal role in conducting spatial analysis within Geographic Information Systems (GIS), allowing for a more accurate identification of the impact and risk factors present in the territory. This study underscores the transformative potential of UAV technology in advancing geomorphological analysis, enhancing our understanding of erosion processes, and supporting sustainable land management practices in areas vulnerable to erosion due to both natural and human-induced factors.



In Memoriam University Professor Dr. Octavia Bogdan (1936-2023)

pp: 125-130  | Full text