CLIMATE CHANGE, LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGE DETECTION AND ITS IMPACT ON HYDROLOGICAL HAZARDS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF ALAKNANDA RIVER BASIN, UTTARAKHAND, INDIA
ABHAY SHANKAR PRASAD, BINDHY WASINI PANDEY
Abstract: Climate change, land use and land cover change detection and its impact on hydrological hazards and sustainable development: a case study of Alaknanda river basin, Uttarakhand, India. Extreme climatic events impact on the natural ecosystems of Alaknanda river basin which affect the socio-economic condition of the rural communities, loss of life, livelihood and natural resources. They pose a serious threat to normal life as well as the process of sustainable development. Rivers are fragile ecosystems which are globally important as water tower of the earth, reservoirs of rich biodiversity, and a popular destination for recreation, tourism and culture heritage. Rivers provides direct life support base for humankind. The unique Geo-climatic condition of Garhwal Himalaya, Alaknanda River basin, Uttarakhand makes it one of the most vulnerable regions in the India. Hydrological hazards are sudden calamities, which involve loss of life, property and livelihood. This paper presents a methodological approach for the integration of extreme events, climatic vulnerability, land use scenario, and flood risk assessment. Anthropogenic activities are continuously disturbing the natural system of the Garhwal Himalaya and its impact on extreme hydrological events. Factors causing these changes have been attempted to be understood through the use of GIS and Geospatial techniques. Human interference, unscientific developmental activities, agriculture extension, tourism activity and road construction are creating the hydrological hazards. Soil erosion and landslide have been recognised as major hazards in the high altitude region of Himalaya. This paper has analysed and evaluates the climate and livelihood vulnerability assessment and its adaptation for sustainable development in the near district headquarter (NDH) & away district headquarter (ADH) determined mainly by a weighted matrix index. The Geospatial technique is used to find out the land use/cover change detection and secondary data is taken to carry out the analysis work. Primary data from each hotspot has been collected through a questionnaire survey and a Participatory Research Approach (PRA) procedure that is based on the LIFE approach. The LIFE Approach is based on Livelihood options, Institutional participation in adaptation policy design and implementation, Food security and Empowerment parameters like health and education. This parameter is important in building resilience capacity and ensuring sustainable development pathways and provides the various mitigation processes from hydrological hazards. This paper has identified the vulnerability issues and suggest an adaptation method for sustainable development strategy and hydrological hazards mitigation planning for the development in the Alaknanda river basin, Uttarakhand, India.
Key-words: Climatic Events, Disaster Risk Reduction, Livelihood Vulnerability Index, Ecological Challenges, and Sustainable Development
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