THE DANUBE-HYDROGRAPHIC POLARISATION
EUROPEAN AXIS. STATE-OF-THE-ART
Abstract.- The Danube- hydrographic polarisation european axis.State-of-the-art The Danube has more „international” character than any other great river, strung along water course four national capitals (Vienna, Bratislava, Budapest,Belgrad), several other cities and hundreds of towns and villages, passes through human habitation of widely varying levels of development. The Danube is the second largest water course in Europe (after the Volga) in terms of length (2860 km), drainage basin (817,000 km2) and multiannual mean dischrge (6,510 m³/sec. entry into Danube Delta).Through the latitudinal development of the Danube River Basin, in the Western and Central European space with different climate conditions (ocean and continental temperate), the liquid discharge regime, with high waters during spring and early summer is reflecting a moderate variation (K=Qmax/Qmin-8.9 at Ceatal Chilia).The Danube is a navigable waterway of significant importance and since ancient times it has helped form links between the populations inhabiting its banks.Traces of settlment date backs thousands of years as people were attracted by fertile floodplains and terraces,the wildlife in wilow forest and the wealth of fish populating the river itself and many great lakes. Unfortunately, this was not always been a bridgeway.There had been times,and they spaned five hundred yeares,when the lower course divided peoples. The Romans turned the river into a political frontier,not easily surmounted because of the force resistance put up by the autochtonous populatoin, the Dacians, in particular. Therefore, the Empire set up a fleet on the Danube,built strategic roads and bridges-one at Drobete-Turnu Severin(Traian`s Bridge), due to Appolodorus from Damascus, and another at Celei,near Corabia. The European Danube Commission (EDC),set up in 1856,was assigned the task of management of navigation on the river and undertaking of correction works to this end.The Commission discharged its duties until 1948, when the Belgrade Convention legiferated the rights of riparian states.This form of organization stimulated the development of several city-ports.Plans for connecting the Danube to Rhine and North Sea, respectively,go back to the reign Charlemagne(AD 793),realised and corrected in a few stages (1836-1845,1959,1992).Another goal was to shorten the distance to the Black Sea by having a canal built on the lower reaches of Danube, between Cernavodă and Constanţa(1974-1984). International cooperation in addressing water problems of the Danube took great steps forward through the Bucharest Declaration of 1985 and Helsiki Treaty of 1992.These paved the way for cooperation among the Danube basin countries.Danube River Basin Management Plan follows the deadlines set out in the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) of December 2000.The achievement of good water status in the water bodies of the Danube region by 2015 is coordinated by the ICPDR..The EU Strategy for Danube Region is to ensure the economic, social and cultural development of states and countries, situated in the drainage basin of the Danube River, by observing environment protection norms.
Key words: Danube -river, hydrology, hystory, management
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