How to cite: P. GÂŞTESCU, LUMINIŢA-ŞTEFANIA BOBOC (2018) The Danube floodplain in the Pontic Sector-ecosystem services, anthropic modifications and management.
Riscuri si Catastrofe Journal, 22(1), P.7-18. DOI: 10.24193/RCJ2018_1
THE DANUBE FLOODPLAIN IN THE PONTIC SECTOR–ECOSYSTEM SERVICES, ANTHROPIC MODIFICATIONS AND MANAGEMENT
P GÂŞTESCU, LUMINIŢA-ŞTEFANIA BOBOC
Abstract. The Danube floodplain in the Pontic Sector-ecosystem services, anthropic modifications and management. In the so-called Pontic sector (Drobeta-Turnu Severin – Brăila) the stream gradient falls from 0.045 to 0.06‰, forming some islets (Rom. "ostrov") (Ostrovul Mare, Păpădia, Calnovăţ, Băloiu and Ostrovul Păsărilor) and a 4 – 13 km wide floodplain on the left handside, which before dyking and draining had encompassed numerous lakes. In this sector, the lefthandside tributaries of the Danube in Romania – the Jiu, Olt and the Argeş, are bigger than in Serbia and Bulgaria, but they are more numerous (Timok, Ogosta, Iskar, Vit, Osam, Iantra and Lom). A second hydro power station was built at Ostrovul Mare in cooperation with Serbia. A famous rail bridge between Feteşti and Cernavodă was built by Anghel Saligny in the years 1890 – 1895. It was the longest bridge across the Danube, and the eighth in the world at that time. A second road-and-rail bridge, parallel to it, was commissioned in 1987. A road-and-rail bridge (commissioned in 1954) spans the river between Giurgiu (Romania) and Ruse (Bulgaria). In this sector was built in 2015, a new bridge for vehicle traffic between Calafat (Romania) and Vidin (Bulgaria). The floodplain of the Lower Danube (Pontic Sector) between Gruia and Tulcea, comprised numerous lakes, marshlands with reed and rush as well as softwood floodplain forests usually occurring as galleries on natural levees and frequent flooding, the local population was suggestively named „balta'. The „baltă', serves as a habitat for numerous plant and animal species the development of which is closely related to the water. The closely interrelation between Danube and floodplain (Balta), as well as the natural processes occurring within floodplain accomplish significant hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological functions and comprise a number of natural resources and values that are of great use to the local population. The relationship between Danube and Balta has been largely interrupted beginning with 1960 year, when a large areas were cut by dams, drained and transformed into agricultural polders. The consequence of these measures was a not the loss of broad floodplain areas (4400 km˛), it also implied the manifold natural services/functions of this area, as spawning for fish, filter for pollutants et al.
Key-words: Danube, floodplain, vocation, ecogeographical changes, consequences
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